his part of the site will attempt to document the history of Cumbria in the "Dark Ages" as a long term (very) project. As my research time is limited the site is not updated very frequently but I suggest you keep calling back to see if anything new is here.

The intention with this page is to first figure out when British independent rule ended and then slowly work back to Romans. I have so much conflicting information on 10th century Cumbria that I have included my development notes in the hope that someone reading them can provide some illumination.   

It seems Cumbria underwent three major phases in this time period

  • 410-620 Rheged
  • 620-908  Northumbria
  • 908-1066 Strathclyde 

So the timeline is split into 3 tables accordingly.

First Age

My attempts at producing a definitive king listing for this period have not yet come to fruition and probably never will. I am striving to provide something different here to the excellent websites such as David Fords "Early British Kingdoms" , the "Regnal Chronologies" or "Kingdoms of the British celts". As a result I have attempted to gather and cross correlate the findings of these sites (I will add more when I have time to study them). Be aware that it is difficult to directly compare dates as the Quoted dates may be for the life of the King and not his reign. Bearing this in mind it still provides an interesting comparison without all that web hopping.  I also have to add dates from several books and papers that I have waiting to be read.

Year

Kings of Rheged 410-620AD  (Source)

Celts of Britain

Regnal EBK

Mammoth

TBD
410 Coel Hen, Dux Brittanorum [?383-420] (iii) Coel the old (old king Cole) [410-440?] (ii) Coel Hen [385-420] (iii) Coel Hen [410-430]
420 Ceneu (St) ap Coel [420-450] (iv) St. Ceneu [born 382} (iv)
430 Cunnedda [420-450] (ii)
440 Cunnedda [450-450] (ii)
450 Gwrast Lledlwm (the Ragged- First King of Rheged) [c450] Ceneu [450-480] (i)  

Gwrast Lledlwm [born 422] Grawst the Ragged

Ceneu or Cenen (also Keneu) [450-470]
460
470 Merchiaun Gul (the Lean)[470-535] ?
480 Gwrgi the Ragged [480-500] Gurgust [480-500]
490
500 Merchiaun the Lean [500-540] Merchiaun Gul (Merchiaun the Lean) [438-535] ?
510 Merchian Gul [510-540]
520
530
540 Cynfarch Oer (the Dismal) -First king of Northern Rheged [535-579] Elidyr the handsome [540-560]  

Urien Rheged [530-590]

Elidyr [540-560]?
550
560 Cynmarch the Dismal [560-570] Cinmarc or Kynmarch [560-570]
570 Urien [570-590] Urien or Urbgen [570-590]
580 Urien Rheged [579-590]
590 Owain map Urien [590-597] Owen [590-595] Owein [590-?] Owain [590-595]
600 Elffin map Owain [597-616] Rhun?/Rhoeth [595-620] St. Kentigern Garthwys/ Prince Rhun/  Princess Rhiainfelt Rhun [600?]
610
620 Rhoedd map Rhun map Urien Rheged [?616-?638] Rhoeth [620]
(i) = Catraeth
(ii) =  in Gododdin, Northern Votadini
(iii) First King of northern Britain
(iV) Second King of Northern Britain
The sources for the above table are:
Second Age
Timeline Northumbria ? Vikings [620-908]
????? Under Construction
   
Third Age
Timeline Strathclyde
908 Donald I, Donald II (British Aristocracy expelled to north Wales by Donald II ?)
908-925 Donald Mac Aed
915/916 Owen II
925-937 Owen Caesarius [Owen III?] (King Owain of Strathclyde defeated by Athelstan in 937, British still in North Wales?
937-945 Dunmail "The Last King of Cumbria" or Dunmael. Donald Mac Donald ?
945-954 Indulf
950 Dunwallun I
954-962 Duff
?-971 Malcolm I
962-973 Donald Mac Owen
973 Malcolm II , Duffnal
973-997 Malcolm Mac Donald
974-975 Dunwallan II
975-991 Domnall II
991-997 Malcolm III
997-1016 Malcolm IV
997-1005 Malcolm II Mac Kenneth
1005-1018 Owen the Bald
1018-1034 Duncan the Gracious
1034-1045 Maldred
1045-1058 Malcolm Canmore- Bighead
   
It can be seen that the above timeline is somewhat less than perfect. The main problem I have is that every website or book I read has a different picture of this timeframe. Many historians have different interpretations of the names of the kings and leaders of the time which can make things even more confusing.

I have taken a serious liberty of copying some of my sources on this webpage in the hope that further interpretation may be forthcoming by someone reading this page. If any of the respective authors feel this is in anyway a misrepresentation of their work then I will remove the aforementioned text. Please visit their pages to experience the wealth of information for yourself.

sources.gif (6415 bytes)
The following is a transcript of an email from David Hughes:
StrathClyde :
Strathclyde, the Kingdom of, was founded in Year AD 148 by Corvus (Corb[ed]), the Cymric heir, descended from the hero-king Caratacus, who rebelled against the Romans, raised a following of British patriots, and established themselves at Alclyde ("Ail Cluathe"), i.e., Castle Rock, Dumbarton, which fortified settlement developed into the city of Dumbarton ("Dun Bretan" = "Fort of the Britons"), situated on the north shore of the Firth of Clyde on the Clyde River.

There, Year 148, Corvus, the senior heir of the old British pre-Roman royal house, founded the British "Free State", which eventually evolved into a regional-kingdom in Scotland, i.e., the Kingdom of Strathclyde. Corvus of Roman History may be identified with Corb(ed) of Scottish History, called the "first" King of Scotland in some Scottish annals. Corvus, representing the senior line of the descendants of the Old British Royal House, reigned as "King of Britain" (government-in-exile) as an
anti-king in opposition to the junior line, which was then represented by the client-king Coilus I (Old King Cole) (reigned AD 94-154, 60 years), installed by the Romans as a puppet-king. Corvus (Corbed) maintained himself at Dumbarton against attacks by the Romans under Tuscillus, the Roman governor, as well as attacks by the Picts under Durgal (Durdegal), the King of Albany, and attacks by the Irish under Fedlim, the King of Midhe (Meath-Connaught).


The attacks on Roman Britain by the Strathclyde Britons under Corvus forced the Romans to temporarily abandon the Antonine Wall and withdraw to Hadrian's Wall. Corvus was killed in battle in Year 184 fighting the reknown Roman general Ulpius Marcellus.

The descendants of Corvus reigned at Dumbarton, beyond the Roman border, as an independent line of kings rivalling the client-kings of Roman Britain and were the ancestors of the later Kings of Strathclyde (543-889), surviving the Roman Era until the close of the early Middle Ages . The British "Free State" was recognized by Rome in Year 305 when Constantius "Chlorus", the Roman governor, made treaties with the Strathclyde Britons, the Picts of Scotland, and the Irish, in a political
move to stop their attafcks on Roman Britain.

Cursalem, one of the Strathclyde kings, even later accompanied Constantine "The Great" in his
campaigns on the European continent. Gwydno "Garanir", the King of the North Britons, in Year 543 moved his seat from Dumbarton, i.e., "Alclyde" ("Rock of the Clyde") to Glasgow, due to attacks by the Scots, etc., after which the name of the northern British kingdom came to be called "Strathclyde" ("Vale of the Clyde"), for which he is reckoned as the "first" King of Strathclyde. The kingdom came to an end as an independent state in Year 889 when its last native king, Eochu, was expelled by the Scots, whereupon he and the remaining members of the Strathclyde royal house fled to Wales, and disappear from history.

Goddodin etc
In the early years following the evacuation of the Roman Army, Britain was torn by civil wars among five kings (GM), who were each powerful enough to dominate large portions of the island and harass each other. They carved up post-Roman Britain among themselves and founded their own kingdoms. They were: (1) Dunvallo "Molmutius", King of Cornwall, who held sway in Southern England, while Northern England was divided into thirds among (2) Coilus (III) "Votepacus", King of Gododdin, who held sway in N-E England and S-E Scotland; (3) Antonius "Donatus", King of Galloway and Cumbria, who held sway in N-W Engaldn and S-W Scotland; while (5) Eugenius (Owain "Finddu"), King of Gwent, Glamorgan, & Gower, held sway over Wales, supported by (a) Cunedda "Guledig", Lord of Gwynedd; (b) Owain "Fraisg", King of Demetia; and (c) Tithlym "Prydyn", King of Powys.

These five kings strove among themselves for supremacy in Britain. They were followed by Vortigern who reunified the country under a central government and reigned as High-King over the whole of what had once been the Roman diocese of Britain. (2) Coilus (III) "Votepacus", the Welsh Cole/Cole "Godebog"/"Guotepauc", who is often confused with Cole "Hen" (Old King Cole), i.e., Cole I, and sometimes confused with Coel?cole II, the eponymous founder of, and/or duke of, Colchester, who is sometimes confused with the others of that name even today by modern scholars. Coilus/Caelius "Votepacus", called "protector", is to be identified with Coelestius "Senex", the "dux Britanniarum", formerly in Roman service, who was descended from pre-Roman British royalty and was the representative of one of the secondary-branches of the Old British Royal House. His epithet "Votepacus"/"Guotepauc" means "The Splendid" or "The Excellent".

Cole "Godebog" (Coilus '"Votepacus") has sometimes been called Britain's "first" Dark Age king, and was regarded by the annalists of Northern England as the founder of Britain's Dark Age Royal House. Cole "Godebog" held sway in Northern England and sat at York. He later moved his headquarters to Dunbar in Gododdin (S-E Scotland) during the civil war between he and Dunvallo "Molmutius", who held sway over Southern England and is regarded by the annalists of Southern England as the founder of Britain's Dark Age Royal House. There are others also reckoned as the founder of Britain's Dark Age Royal House, e.g., Vortigern, for one. The move Cole "Godebog" made from York to Dunbar is why he is reckoned as the "first" King of Gododdin, which was a regional-kingdom overlapping N-E England and S-E Scotland.

It is recorded that Cole "Godebog" launched a massive attack on Ayrshire against Quintillus of Strathclyde, and on Galloway and Cumbria against Antonius "Donatus" of Galloway/Cumbria. Cole "Godebog" appears to have again moved his headquarters at this time to Aeron (Ayrshire, Scotland), and appears later to have established his headquarters at Kyle, to which he gave his name. That would have been his third move. Cole "Godebog" would allow some barbarian groups, e.g., Scots, Norse, and Irish, to settle in Britain as "laeti". "Laeti" were warrior-colonists who were granted land by the king in exchange for military service. Cole "Godebog" was caught by surprise by Quintillus who made a night-attack on Cole's encampment and scattered Cole's Army in flight, and Cole "Godebog" drowned in some bogs during the rout of his forces Year 420. This battle, according to tradition, took place somewhere in Strathclyde. Cole "Godebog" was buried under a circular mound at Coilsfield, in the parish of Tarbolton.

The descendants of Cole "Godebog", called "the sons of Godebog", or "the Coelings", or The "Gwyr Y Gogledd" ("Men of the North-Country"), developed into numerous branches over time and were the rulers of lands throughout Northern England which was called the British "North Country". Of the thirteen local states (regional-kingdoms) into which the British "North Country" was resolved, eight were ruled by Cole's descendants.

Cumbria and Galloway
Antonius "Donatus", the Welsh Anthun "Wledic", the only surviving son of the earlier British king and Roman Emperor, Maximus, and/or the younger brother of the British king Constantine II (Constantine III as rival Roman emperor, 406-11), set himself up as king or emperor in Britain in Year 418 in opposition to the other self-proclaimed British kings, and, establishing himself at Carlisle in Galloway (S-W Scotland), also founded a post-Roman British kingdom that year and is reckoned as the "first" King of Galloway/Cumbria. He was run-out of Cumbria (N-W England) by "the sons of Cole", i.e., "the Coelings", who gave Cumbria another dynasty of rulers. He was killed in Year 423 fighting Quintillus of Strathclyde. His descendants reigned as Kings of Galloway until Year 683 when Merfyn "Mawr" was killed fighting the Angles of Northumbria. His descendants later appear as the Lords/Earls of Carrick until 1256.

The "King Dunmail", the last King of Cumberland (d. 945), was descended from "the Coelings" rather than Antonius "Donatus" since the descendants of Cole "Godebog", the "Gwyr Y Gogledd" , tookover Cumbria from the descendants of Antonius "Donatus", who were afterwards confined to Galloway. It is more proper that the "last" King of the Britons should descend from ancient British royalty (represented by Cole Godebog's descendants) rather than the British branch of the Roman imperial house (represented by Antonius "Donatus", among others, e.g. the Dukes of Gloucester, etc.)

http://hometown.aol.com/Skyelander/timeline.html [link no longer valid]

Skye's Scottish History Timeline

by Robert M. Gunn, Historian

1018
Carham - King Malcolm the 2nd and Owen of Strathclyde defeated the Northumbrian army on the Tweed.
Battle of Carham. Scots victorius and Strathclyde is annexed by the Scots.
Malcolm II gains Lothian after defeating the Anglo-Saxon Northumbrians, with the help of the King of Strathclyde.
Death of Owen-the-Bald, King of Strathclyde. Duncan, grandson of Malcolm II
made ruler of Strathclyde.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1034
Duncan I (r.1034 - 1040)
Duncan, made King of Strathclyde after the battle of Carham, helps kill his   grandfather Malcolm II and becomes King of a (largely) united Scotland.

From the Regnal Chronolgies:http://web.raex.com/~obsidian/scot.html
STRATHCLYDE This loosely organized kingdom was located in what is now southwestern Scotland and Northwestern England. Its center was in Ayrshire, at the present-day city of Dumbarton. Situated as it was between Scotland and Cumbria, it retained aspects of both Gaelic and Cymric culture. Its capital destroyed in 870 by Vikings, it fell under Scottish suzerainty in the 10th century, but regained independence for a 45 year period after 971.
  • Eochu (K. of Scots 878-889)........................ ? -889
  • Donald I......................................fl. aft. 908
  • Donald II.....................................fl. aft. 908
  • Owen II.........................................fl. c. 915/16
  • Owen III........................................fl. c. 927/34
  • Dunmael............................................ ? -945
  • Indulf.............................................945-954 d. 962: with...
  • Dunwallun I............................................950
  • Duff...............................................954-962 d. 967
  • Malcolm I.......................................fl. c. 971
  • Malcolm II.........................................fl. 973
  • Duffnal............................................fl. 973
  • Dunwallun II.......................................974-975
  • Domnall II.........................................975-aft. 991
  • Malcolm III...................................aft. 991-997
  • Malcolm IV.........................................997-c. 1016
  • Owen V the Bald........................................c. 1016/18
  • Duncan I MacCrinan..........................from circa 1016 d.1040
Early Kindoms website within the Britannia server (David Ford Nash) : http://www.britannia.com/history/ebk/ebktime2.htm
878 - King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd, Powys and Seisyllwg returns to his kingdoms, but is killed fighting the Mercians of King Ceolwulf II. His kingdoms are divided amongst his three sons, Anarawd, Merfyn and Cadell respectively. The Vikings winter in Dyfed. Death of King Run of Strathclyde. His son, Eochaid, succeeds to the throne and allies himself with his mother's cousin, King Giric of Alba. The two rule all Scotland together as joint-monarchs.

889 - Kings Eochaid and Giric of Alba, Strathclyde & the Picts are deposed by Viking invaders. The former's cousin takes the throne as King Donald II. The end of independent Strathclyde rule.

890 - King Donald II of Alba expels the British aristorcracy of Strathclyde. They flee south to North Wales.

937 - King Athelstan of England defeats a combined Northern Army under Kings Olaf of Dublin, Constantine II of Scots and Owain of Strathclyde at the Battle of Brunanbury. Though none of the British monarchs appear to have taken part, the people of Strathclyde were a major contingent under their Scottish King. The battle finally ends all British hope of driving the Saxons from their shores.

c.937 - King Idwal Foel of Gwynedd distances himself from his English overlord. The British begin to use the term "Cyrmry" to speak of themselves.

937 - Battle of Brunanburh: Athelstan defeats alliance of Scots, Strathclyde Britons and Vikings, and takes the title of "King of all Britain"

973 - After his coronation, King Edgar of England marches his army north to Chester. His navy meets him there via the Irish Sea. This show of strength persuades the Northern Kings to submit to his overlordship. Legend says he is rowed across the Dee by Kings Kenneth of Alba, Malcolm of the Cumbrians, Magnus of Man & the Isles, Donald of Strathclyde, Iago of Gwynedd, Princes Hywel of Gwynedd, Ithel and Siferth (the latter two of unknown origin). The Council of Winchester calls for English monastic reform and draws up a code of practice known as the Regularis Concordia. Foundation of Thorney Abbey.

From the Regnal Chronolgies:http://web.raex.com/~obsidian/scot.html
RHEGED A Cymric Kingdom in northwestern England; Cumberland, Lancastershire, and the Lake Country. Little is known of this state, and the information is quite tentative. King Urien is fairly well known; he is praised by Gildas, among other things.
  • To the Later Votadini............................410-c. 440's
  • To Catraeth...................................c. 440's-c. 480's
  • CENEU
  • Gwrgi the Ragged.............................fl. 480's-500's
  • Merchiaun the Lean...........................fl. 500's-540's
  • Elidyr the Handsome...........................c. 540's-c. 560
  • Cynmarch the Dismal..........................fl. 560's-570's
  • Urien...........................................c. 570-c. 590 with...
  • Llywarch the Old (in South Rheged)..............c. 570-c. 575 ? d. ?
  • Owen............................................c. 590-c. 595
  • Rhun ?
  • Rhoeth..........................................c. 595-c. 620's
  • To Northumbria, early 7th century
  • Anything at all on King Dunmail or his sons
  • Information of Northern British kings 400-1066 AD
  • A Map of the British Isles from the early 10th Century
  • Information on the North west of England 400 to 1066AD
  • Information on The kings of Strathclyde 900-1066 AD
Disclaimer: I am not a professional historian and the information presented within this site represents my interpretations of historical events in Cumbria between 400-1066AD. I strive to find as much evidence as possible to support my theories and often post excerpts from other peoples work to support this. This does not mean that I am attempting to profit from their work rather that I respect their viewpoints and wish them to receive as wide an audience as possible.  Due to the limitations of the the internet It is often more efficient to post a small extract from a site rather than expect people to jump all over the web following hyperlinks. If you object to your work being represented in this way please let me know and I will remove the excerpts.
Feel free to contact me at Zensurweb@yahoo.com
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